How to: Set/Configure Static IP Address/DHCP for Ubuntu Server/Desktop 18.04/19.04/19.10 via Terminal using netplan

Before starting the process, make sure you have other ways/backup method to access your server/desktop rather than over LAN/WAN in case if the connect is lost.

Using netplan

(For older versions we can use “sudo apt install netplan.io” to install netplan)

netplan is a YAML network configuration tool [1]

1 First we need to check is there is existing configuration file

# Change current directory to /etc/netplan
cd /etc/netplan
 
# List files under that folder
ls
/etc/netplan folder
/etc/netplan folder

Here we have a file “50-cloud-init.yaml” which we can use

If the folder is empty, we can create the file by using

touch config.yaml

2 Editing the file

(In this example we use default file which is “50-cloud-init.yaml”, if you have created “config.yaml” file it will be empty)

sudo nano 50-cloud-init.yaml

We will see following contents

Note: ens33 is the Ethernet interface, yours can be different don’t change it!!!!

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: true                                                                                                     
    version: 2
Editing yaml file for netplan
Editing yaml file for netplan

Now, we can see on interface ens33, it is configured to use dhcp version 4. (dhcp4: true)

If we want to use DHCP for this server/desktop, then this setting is fine, we do not need to change anything. (We can use Ctrl + X to exit the nano program)

If we want to configure a static IP address for this server/desktop, here is what we need to change (We only need to look at “Before” and “After” sections, “Different format” “If we have workgroup” and “Or two domains” are extended reading)

Note: The spaces in front of “ethernets, ens33” etc. etc. they are actually spaces not Tab, we can’t use Tab for those and these spaces are actually indentation, so they are very important as well, do not change indentation or use Tab, otherwise the configuration file will not work.

The yaml is quite self-explanatory:

dhcp4 yes|no|true|false: Enable/Disable DHCP v4

addresses: Static IP Address

gateway4: IPv4 Gateway

nameservers: DNS resolvers

search: domain to search/workgroup

Before

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: true                                                                                                     
    version: 2

After

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [192.168.247.129/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.247.2
            nameservers:
              addresses: [192.168.247.2, 8.8.8.8]                                                                                                     
    version: 2

Different format

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: no
            addresses:
            - 192.168.247.129/24
            gateway4:
            - 192.168.247.2
            nameservers:
              addresses:
              - 192.168.247.2
              - 8.8.8.8                                                                                                    
    version: 2

If we have workgroup

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [192.168.247.129/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.247.2
            nameservers:
              addresses: [192.168.247.2, 8.8.8.8]
              search: [workgroup]                                                                                                     
    version: 2

Or two domains

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [192.168.247.129/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.247.2
            nameservers:
              addresses: [192.168.247.2, 8.8.8.8]
              search: [domain1.example.com, domain2.example.com]                                                                                                     
    version: 2

3 Save the file

Once finished with editing, we use Ctrl + X, then hit Y, Enter key to exit nano and save the file

4 Apply the changes

sudo netplan apply

5 To check the IP address

ip a
 
or
 
ip addr
 
or 
 
ip address
ip a
ip a

Resources

[1] “Netplan configuration examples”, Netplan.io, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://netplan.io/examples.

How to: Create Docker Swarm Cluster (With 3 servers) Easily (And install portainer to manage them)

Purpose of this guide

We will learn how to create a docker swarm cluster with 1 manager node and 2 worker nodes

What do we need to follow this guide

  • A spare computer with Windows operating system (Windows/macOS/Linux) as working PC
  • 3 up to date Ubuntu Server 19.10 /Linux servers (Can be real server can be virtual machines, in this guide we are using Ubuntu server 19.10) [Tips: Virtual machine is recommended for this guide, since we can easily take snapshots and restore easily if something goes wrong]
  • Each of them should at least have 2 GB RAM
  • Servers and the working PC have access to internet
  • Server must be connected to a same LAN
  • SSH client on the working PC (It’s will be easier when copy/paste join tokens among servers)

Tasks in this guide

  1. Before creating the docker swarm cluster, we will need to configure static IP address for each server
  2. Install docker on each server
  3. Configure Manager node
  4. Configure worker node 1
  5. Configure worker node 2
  6. Check docker nodes connection
  7. Bonus: Install portainer to manage a Linux swarm cluster with portainer server and the portainer agent (Not required for the docker swarm cluster)

Begin the journey

1 Configure static IP addresses for 3 servers

(Important Note: You do not have to use same IP address as in this guide, the IP address assigned form your router’s DHCP can be used to configure as static IP address on the server as a temporary solution, e.g. if your computer is getting address like 10.0.0.10, you can use 10.0.0.100, 10.0.0.101, 10.0.0.102 as their static address. For long term usage, we should take those address out of the DHCP address pool, or IP address conflict/duplicate IP address issue can occur, you can also configure static IP address from your router as well rather than on the server although configure on the server is preferred )

Manager node – 192.168.247.129

If you don’t understand or can’t follow Step 1.1 to Step 1.6, have a look on this guide first to understand how to use netplan/configure static IP address with netplan: How to: Set/Configure Static IP Address/DHCP for Ubuntu Server/Desktop 18.04/19.04/19.10 via Terminal using netplan then continue from here

1.1 Change current directory to “/etc/netplan”

cd /etc/netplan

1.2 List files within the folder

ls

There should be a file ending with “.yaml”, in this example we have “50-cloud-init.yaml” your might be different, if so, use that one from your directory

1.3 We need to modify that file to configure static IP address

sudo nano 50-cloud-init.yaml

1.4 Change from “Before” to “After”, make sure you have correct IP address configured, again, you do not need to use the same IP address form here, make sure you have configured IP address, gateway4 and nameservers correctly.

Before

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: true                                                                                                     
    version: 2

After

# This file is generated from information provided by                                                                   # the datasource.  Changes to it will not persist across an instance.                                                   # To disable cloud-init's network configuration capabilities, write a file                                              # /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg with the following:                                              # network: {config: disabled}                                                                                           network:
    ethernets:                                                                                                                  
        ens33:                                                                                                                      
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [192.168.247.129/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.247.2
            nameservers:
              addresses: [192.168.247.2, 8.8.8.8]                                                                                                     
    version: 2

1.5 Use Ctrl + X, then Hit Y, then hit Enter key to save and exit the nano editor

1.6 Apply changes

sudo netplan apply

1.7 Make sure the IP address is configured correctly

ip a
ip a
ip a

1.8 Make sure the configured IP and DNS works by using following commands

# Check DNS server, IP address should be returned
dig bing.com
 
# Check the network, time of round trip should be returned
ping bing.com -c 5

Worker node 1 – 192.168.247.130

1.9 Same step as from Step 1.1 to Step 1.7 but with different IP address

Worker node 2 – 192.168.247.131

1.10 Same step as from Step 1.1 to Step 1.7 but with different IP address

2 Install docker on each server

Manager node – 192.168.247.129

2.1 Install docker

sudo apt install -y docker.io

Worker node 1 – 192.168.247.130

2.2 Install docker

sudo apt install -y docker.io

Worker node 1 – 192.168.247.131

2.3 Install docker

sudo apt install -y docker.io

3 Configure Manager node – 192.168.247.129

3.0 Preparation/Suggestion for using SSH client

(Use SSH client to connect to the server from the working PC, for Windows we can use PowerShell or Windows Terminal with ssh command, for Linux and macOS we can just use terminal with ssh command)

e.g.

(To connect to 192.168.247.129, we can use following command, then type yes, hit Enter key, type password to connect)

# Format
ssh [email protected]
 
# Example For this guide
ssh [email protected]

3.1 Initialize docker swarm manager [1]

sudo docker swarm init
sudo docker swarm init
sudo docker swarm init

3.2 Copy the command for adding a worker to this swarm, the following is for this guide, yours will be different, you will have to use yours

docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-5vphj6kj8t6z5yz45jq97vpe742avhl7md4905o796kkupnu1t-5oypobnbtpb3kksvv5s2k15f5 192.168.247.129:2377

Note: If you have missed that token somehow, in order to show the token again

# Show token for adding worker
sudo docker swarm join-token worker
 
# Show token for adding manager
sudo docker swarm join-token manager
Show docker swarm token for adding worker and manager nodes
Show docker swarm token for adding worker and manager nodes

4 Configure worker node 1 – 192.168.247.130

4.1 Adding worker node 1 to swarm as a worker (Execute following command on worker node 1) (The command was copied from Step 3.2)

sudo docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-5vphj6kj8t6z5yz45jq97vpe742avhl7md4905o796kkupnu1t-6mrz20tzuovi3rivfw3ivm6wv 192.168.247.129:2377
Successfully executed command on worker node 1, worker node 1 added to swarm as a worker
Successfully executed command on worker node 1, worker node 1 added to swarm as a worker

5 Configure worker node 2 – 192.168.247.131

5.1 Adding worker node 2 to swarm as a worker (Execute following command on worker node 2) (The command was copied from Step 3.2)

sudo docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-5vphj6kj8t6z5yz45jq97vpe742avhl7md4905o796kkupnu1t-6mrz20tzuovi3rivfw3ivm6wv 192.168.247.129:2377
Successfully executed command on worker node 2, worker node 2 added to swarm as a worker
Successfully executed command on worker node 2, worker node 2 added to swarm as a worker

6 Check docker nodes connection

6.1 Execute following command on manager node

sudo docker node ls
sudo docker node ls output on manager node
sudo docker node ls output on manager node

Now the docker swarm cluster is created and ready for use

7 Bonus: Install portainer to manage a Linux swarm cluster with portainer server and the portainer agent (Not required for the docker swarm cluster)

7.1 Execute following commands on the manager node [2]

curl -L https://downloads.portainer.io/portainer-agent-stack.yml -o portainer-agent-stack.yml
 
docker stack deploy --compose-file=portainer-agent-stack.yml portainer
Install portainer to manage the LLLinux swarm cluster with portainer server and the portainer agent
Install portainer to manage the LLLinux swarm cluster with portainer server and the portainer agent

7.2 Open portainer web GUI, configure username and password (http://manager node’s IP address:9000) then click on “Create user”

In this guide it is http://192.168.247.129:9000

portainer web GUI
portainer web GUI
portainer home page
portainer home page

Now the portainer installation and configuration is done for managing Linux swarm cluster with portainer server and portainer agent

Click on “primary” we can view the dashboard

portainer dashboard
portainer dashboard

Click on “Go to cluster visualizer” we can see the swarm cluster details

Swarm, Cluster visualizer
Swarm, Cluster visualizer

App Templates – stack

App Templates - stack
App Templates – stack

Stacks

Stacks
Stacks

Services

Services
Services

Containers

Containers
Containers

Images

Images
Images

Networks

Networks
Networks

Volumes

Volumes
Volumes
Volumes
Volumes

Configs

Configs
Configs

Secrets

Secrets
Secrets

Swarm

Swarm
Swarm

Resources

[1] “Run Docker Engine in swarm mode”, Docker Documentation, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/swarm-mode.

[2] “Installation”, Portainer.io, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.portainer.io/installation


How to: Fix Ubuntu Server 19 “Cockpit Cannot refresh cache whilst offline” and “Cannot refresh cache whilst offline” Errors

The Error

When cockpit is installed on Ubuntu Server 19, we might get following errors

Cockpit Cannot refresh cache whilst offline

Cannot refresh cache whilst offline

The Fix

By disabling the network-manager, we can resolve those errors (Yes, It’s more of workaround rather than fix)

Warning: Do not run these commands on production server, unless you know what you are doing.

1 Disable network-manager service and stop it immediately, then restart the system

sudo systemctl disable network-manager.service
 
sudo systemctl stop network-manager.service
 
sudo reboot

2 Now, get back to cockpit, errors won’t be there anymore


How to: Fix “Could not get lock…” “Unable to lock directory…” in OpenMediaVault (OMV)

The Error

Sometimes when we want to install some tools/program with “sudo apt install program” in OMV via terminal/SSH we encounter following error which blocks us from installing the program

E: Could not get lock /var/cache/archives/lock – open (11: resource temporarily unavailable)
E: Unable to lock directory /var/cache/apt/archives

The Fix

Usually, that means we have new updates waiting to be installed

1 Navigate to OMV web UI via http/https://your-OMV-hostname-or-IP-address

2 Navigate to “System” click on “Update Management”

OMV - Update Management
OMV – Update Management

3 Check all available updates then click on “Install” button

4 Wait till all updates are done

5 Now get back to terminal/SSH and try to install program again, this time there should be no errors

Bonus

Here are some useful apps/programs/utilities can be installed via “sudo apt install” and can be used easily for managing/monitoring OMV from terminal/SSH

htop – Similar to top, with more info

htop
htop

nethogs – Real-time network/traffic usage

nethogs
nethogs

iftop – Another traffic monitoring program

iftop
iftop

glances – Comprehensive monitoring

glances
glances

How to: Add/Include folder to Windows 10 Library Remove/Delete folder from Windows 10 Library

If the Library icon is missing from “This PC” please refer to this guide to show it:

How to Fix: Windows 10 Library missing/Missing Library icon in “This PC” & How to: Hide Library in Windows 10

Add/Include folder to Windows 10 Library

1 Open “This PC” or Navigate to the folder that we want to include in the Libraries

2 Right click on the folder that we want to include in the Libraries, Navigate to “Include in library” then select existing library or click on “Create new library” to include it to a new library

Include in library
Include in library

3 In this example we include the “xampp” folder to “Documents” library

Include xampp folder in Documents library
Include xampp folder in Documents library

Remove/Delete/Exclude folder from Windows 10 Library (This will not delete the folder itself)

1 Open “This PC”

2 Navigate to the library which include the folder which we want to remove from, “Documents” library in this case

Library – Documents

3 Right click on the library which includes the folder which we want to remove/delete from, “Documents” in this case, then click on “Properties”

Right on the library, Documents in this case
Right on the library, Documents in this case

4 Click on the folder which we want to remove from library then click on “Remove” button, finally click on “OK” button

Documents Properties
Documents Properties

5 Now the folder is removed from the library

xampp folder removed from Documents library
xampp folder removed from Documents library

Warning: If you right click on the folder then click on Delete from Library, the folder will be deleted!!! (That’s not delete from the library, it actually deletes the folder itself and of course it will disappear from the library as well, sine the folder is gone completely by deleting it). So be careful.


How to Fix: Windows 10 Library missing/Missing Library icon in “This PC” & How to: Hide Library in Windows 10

What is Windows 10 Library in short

The “Libraries” in the red rectangle is Windows 10 Library

Windows 10 - This PC - Libraries
Windows 10 – This PC – Libraries

How to bring it back/Show it, if it’s not there?

1 Right click in one of the areas marked in red rectangle

Windows 10 - This PC - Libraries missing
Windows 10 – This PC – Libraries missing

2 Click on “Show libraries”

Windows 10 - This PC - Show libraries
Windows 10 – This PC – Show libraries

3 Now the Libraries folder is back in This PC

Windows 10 - This PC - Libraries
Windows 10 – This PC – Libraries

How to hide “Libraries” in This PC?

1 Right click in one of the areas marked in red rectangle

Windows 10 - This PC - Hide Libraries
Windows 10 – This PC – Hide Libraries

2 Click on “Show libraries” to uncheck it (Which means hide it)

Windows 10 - This PC - Click on Show libraries to unheck and hide it
Windows 10 – This PC – Click on Show libraries to unheck and hide it

How to: Fix pfSense “vnstatd Status Traffic Totals data collection daemon” not Starting

The Issue

Can’t start “vnstatd Status Traffic Totals data collection daemon”

pfSense - vnstatd refuse to start
pfSense – vnstatd refuse to start

The Fix

1 From menu bar, navigate to “Status – Traffic Totals”

pfSense - Menu bar
pfSense – Menu bar
pfSense - Menu bar - Status - Traffic Totals
pfSense – Menu bar – Status – Traffic Totals

2 Click on “Display Advanced”

pfSense - Status - Traffic Totals
pfSense – Status – Traffic Totals

3 Click on “Enable Graphing”

pfSense - Status - Traffic Totals - Enable Graphing
pfSense – Status – Traffic Totals – Enable Graphing

4 Now we can see, Traffic Totals started running

Traffic Totals started running
Traffic Totals started running
Traffic Totals started running
Traffic Totals started running

How to: Find out your genuine Windows 10 product key from the computer easily with different methods

1 Using ProductKey

A free software for reviewing Windows product keys.

ProductKey
ProductKey

Download ProduKey (In Zip file)

Download ProduKey for x64

2 Using Registry Editor

1 Use Win + R key combination to launch “Run” Window

Microsoft Windows - Run window
Microsoft Windows – Run window

2 Type regedit, then hit Enter key, Registry Editor Window will appear

Windows 10 Registry Editor
Windows 10 Registry Editor

3 Navigate to following path

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\SoftwareProtectionPlatform
Registry Editor - SoftwareProtectionPlatform
Registry Editor – SoftwareProtectionPlatform

You will be able to find your Windows product key besides “BackupProductKeyDefault” key

3 Using PowerShell/Command Prompt

1 Launch command prompt/PowerShell with Admin privilege.

1.1 By using Win + X key, launch the Command Prompt (Admin) or PowerShell (Admin)

2 Execute following command

wmic path softwarelicensingservice get OA3xOriginalProductKey
wmic path softwarelicensingservice get OA3xOriginalProductKey
wmic path softwarelicensingservice get OA3xOriginalProductKey

4 Using PowerShell/Command Prompt with Registry command



1 Launch command prompt/PowerShell with Admin privilege.

1.1 By using Win + X key, launch the Command Prompt (Admin) or PowerShell (Admin)

2 Execute following command

REG QUERY "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\SoftwareProtectionPlatform" /v BackupProductKeyDefault
Get value for "BackupProductKeyDefault" from command prompt or PowerShell
Get value for “BackupProductKeyDefault” from command prompt or PowerShell

How to: Add specific/custom folders to Windows index (So that contents will come up in search results in Start Menu)

1 Bring up the “Indexing Options”

1.1 Method 1

1.1.1 Click on Start button to bring up Windows Start menu

Start button
Start button

1.1.2 Type index

Type index
Type index

We will find “Index Options”

1.2 Method 2

1.2.1 Use Win + R key combination to bring up Run window

Microsoft Windows - Run window
Microsoft Windows – Run window

1.2.2 Type control then hit Enter key, Control Panel will appear

Windows 10 Control Panel
Windows 10 Control Panel

1.2.3 Click on “Large icons”

Large icons
Large icons

1.2.4 Click on “Index Options”

Index Options
Index Options

1.3 Method 3

1.3.1 Use Win + R key combination to bring up Run window

Microsoft Windows - Run window
Microsoft Windows – Run window

1.3.2 Type one of following commands then hit Enter key

control.exe srchadmin.dll
 
control /name Microsoft.IndexingOptions
 
rundll32.exe shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL srchadmin.dll

2 Add the desired folder to Windows Index

2.1 Click on “Modify” button

Windows 10 Index Options
Windows 10 Index Options

2.2 Check the desired folders, so that they will be indexed. You can select folders from other drives as well, e.g. D, E, F drive

Windows 10 Indexed Locations
Windows 10 Indexed Locations

(If we can’t find what we want to add to index, we can click on “Show all locations” to show more locations)

2.3 Click on “OK” button to save the changes.

(Next time when the system is updating the index, those folders/contents will be indexed as well)

3 Rebuild Index

If you want to rebuild index instantly, here is how

3.1 After we have clicked on “OK” button, we are back to “Index Options” window again

Windows 10 Indexing Options
Windows 10 Indexing Options

3.2 Click on “Advanced” button

3.3 Click on the “Rebuild” button, now the system will start to rebuild the index (Note: It will take awhile, if you have heaps of files, it will take even longer)

Windows 10 Index Options - Advanced Options
Windows 10 Index Options – Advanced Options

When it’s finished, our files/folders will come up in the search results


Shortcut keys/Keyboard Shortcuts in Ubuntu (Gnome) (Some are working in Kali Linux as well)

1 Search menu – Windows Key/Super Key

Search menu - Windows Key or Super Key
Search menu – Windows Key or Super Key
Search menu - Search sett
Search menu – Search sett

View launched apps

View launched apps
View launched apps

2 Terminal – CTRL + ALT + T

Terminal - CTRL + ALT + T
Terminal – CTRL + ALT + T

3 Lock screen – Super Key + L

4 Minimize/Restore all Windows – Super Key + D or CTRL + ALT + D

Minimize all Windows to show Desktop.

Restore Minimzed Windows

5 Show Application menu – Super Key + A

Application menu - Super Key + A
Application menu – Super Key + A

6 Switch Apps – Super Key + Tab or Alt + Tab

Super Key + Tab

Switch Apps - Super Key + Tab
Switch Apps – Super Key + Tab

Alt + Tab

Switch Apps - Alt + Tab
Switch Apps – Alt + Tab

7 Notification menu – Super Key + M

Notification menu - Super Key + M
Notification menu – Super Key + M

8 Split screen – Super Key + Arrow Keys (Up, Down, Left, Right arrows)

Split screen - Super Key + Arrow Keys
Split screen – Super Key + Arrow Keys

9 Switch between Workspaces – CTRL + ALT + ↑ or CTRL + ALT + ↓

Switch between Workspaces - CTRL + ALT + ↑ or CTRL + ALT + ↓
Switch between Workspaces – CTRL + ALT + ↑ or CTRL + ALT + ↓

10 Execute command without using terminal – Alt + F2

(Similar to Windows Run Window which is Win + R)

Execute command without using terminal - Alt + F2
Execute command without using terminal – Alt + F2

11 Log off – CTRL + ALT + DELETE

Log off - CTRL + ALT + DELETE
Log off – CTRL + ALT + DELETE

12 Close Window Alt + F4 or CTRL + Q

13 Customise Keyboard Shortcuts

1 Navigate to “Settings – Devices – Keyboard Shortcuts”

Keyboard Shortcuts 1
Keyboard Shortcuts 1
Keyboard Shortcuts 3
Keyboard Shortcuts 2
Keyboard Shortcuts 3
Keyboard Shortcuts 3
Keyboard Shortcuts 4
Keyboard Shortcuts 4
Keyboard Shortcuts 5
Keyboard Shortcuts 5

2 Scroll down to the bottom, click on the + button

3 Enter necessary details, Set the Shortcut, now we have a new keyboard shortcut

Add Custom Shortcut
Add Custom Shortcut