Another Web/Web Vulnerability Scanner – xray

A powerful security assessment tool

Supports Active and Passive scanning.

Supports Linux, Windows, macOS

Demo
Demo

1 Use basic crawler to scan a website

xray webscan --basic-crawler http://example.com --html-output crawler.html

2 Run as a HTTP proxy to scan passively

xray webscan --listen 127.0.0.1:7777 --html-output proxy.html

Configure the browser to use http proxy http://127.0.0.1:7777, then the proxy traffic can be automatically analyzed and scanned.

3 Scan a single url

xray webscan --url http://example.com/?a=b --html-output single-url.html

4 Specify the plugins to run manually

By default, all built-in plugins are enabled, and the following commands can be used to enable specific plugins for this scan.

xray webscan --plugins cmd_injection,sqldet --url http://example.com
xray webscan --plugins cmd_injection,sqldet --listen 127.0.0.1:7777 

5 Specify plugin output path

You can specify the output path of the vulnerability information:

xray webscan --url http://example.com/?a=b \ --text-output result.txt --json-output result.json --html-output report.html

6 proxy https traffic

6.1 Download xray binary

6.2 Generate certificate and configuration file

xray genca

6.3 Install the certificate

6.4 We can configure the browser to use proxy server “127.0.0.1:8080” then execute following command

xray webscan --listen 127.0.0.1:8080 --html-output results.htm

Resource


How to fix: macOS – Software Update “Unable to check for updates” “Make sure you are connected to the Internet”

The Issue

Software Update
"Unable to check for updates"
"Make sure you are connected to the Internet"

Other symptoms including:

Some websites can be opened in Safari, some can’t and the safari is saying not connected to internet etc.

App Store is complaining about internet connection “Can’t connect to the App Store” “Safari Can’t Open the Page” etc.

Fix 1 – Make sure your macOS time is correct

1 Click on the clock on top right corner

2 Click on “Open Date & Time Preferences”

3 Click on the lock icon at the bottom left corner near “Click the lock to make changes”

4 Authorize the change

5 Check the “Set date and time automatically” or correct the date and time manually.

6 Close the window, now the macOS and the software update should be working correctly.

Fix 2 – Reset NVRAM or PRAM

1 Power off the Mac

2 Hold the Option + Command + P + R keys

3 Power up the Mac (Till the screen flashed three times or hold for approximately 15 seconds)

4 Release the keys.

5 Now the issue should be fixed.

Note: Reset NVRAM or PRAM might change some system settings and preferences. We may need to update the display resolution and startup disk preference in System Preferences and volume as well.

(If you can’t start up your Mac after resetting NRVAM or PRAM) try below steps

1 Power off the Mac

2 Hold the Option key, start the Mac

3 When we see the prompt, select the correct startup disk

4 After the Mac starts up, Navigate to “Apple menu -> System Preferences -> Startup Disk” then select the correct startup disk.


How To: Create Apple Time Machine in Open Media Vault 5 (OMV 5) with Shared Folder (SMB Share/Windows Share/Shared Folder/CIFS)

In How To: Create Apple Time Machine in Open Media Vault (OMV) we have walked-through how to create Apple Time Machine in OMV 4 with openmediavault-netatalk plugin. It’s compatible with many older and newer macOS, but it’s not possible to see or share files using that space with Microsoft Windows Operating Systems like Windows 10 etc.

From macOS Mojave 10.14 and onwards (Including macOS Catalina 10.15), Time Machine is compatible with Windows Share/Shared Folder/SMB/CIFS. (Suggested minimum SMB version V3)

This guide will not only walk you through how to create apple time machine in open media vault 5 (OMV 5) with Shared Folder/SMB Share/Windows Share/CIFS, you will also learn how to create Windows shared folder for use between Windows PC<-> Windows PC, Windows PC <-> macOS, macOS <-> macOS in OMV 5.

(For OpenMediaVault 4/OMV 4, please follow this one: How To: Create SMB/CIFs/Windows Share in Open Media Vault (OMV))

1 Make sure OMV 5 Installed

1.1 Login to OMV webui

1.2 Go to “Diagnostics” -> “System Information”

OMV -> Diagnostics -> System Information
OMV -> Diagnostics -> System Information

1.3 Make sure you have OMV 5 installed

OMV - Version - 5.2.1-1 (Usul)
OMV – Version – 5.2.1-1 (Usul)

2 Create File system

2.1 Make sure you have attached the physical disk to the device

2.2 Login to open media vault webui

2.3 Go to “Storage” -> “Disks”

OMV -> Storage -> Disks
OMV -> Storage -> Disks

2.4 Scan for disks if it’s not there

OMV -> Storage -> Disks -> Scan
OMV -> Storage -> Disks -> Scan

2.5 Go to “Storage” -> “File Systems”

OMV -> Storage -> File Systems
OMV -> Storage -> File Systems

2.6 Click on “Create” button to create and initialise the disk for use

OMV-> Storage -> File Systems
OMV-> Storage -> File Systems

2.7 Create file system, make sure you have selected correct “Device”, you can leave the “Label” empty, select default “EXT4” as “File system” if you have no idea what is this or which one to go with.

OMV-> Storage -> File Systems -> Create file system
OMV-> Storage -> File Systems -> Create file system

2.8 Now the new File system is created, we need to Mount it (Attach it for use). Select the File system we have just created, then click on Mount button

OMV-> Storage -> File Systems -> Mount
OMV-> Storage -> File Systems -> Mount

2.9 Click on “Apply” to commit the change

The configuration has been changed. You must apply the changes in order for them to take effect.
The configuration has been changed. You must apply the changes in order for them to take effect.

3 Create Windows Share (SMB Share/Shared Folder/CIFS) For Time Machine (and Windows) to use/share

3.1 Go to “Services” -> “SMB/CIFS”

OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS

3.2 Click on “Shares” then click on “Add”

OMV - Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add
OMV – Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add

3.3 Click on “+” button from “Shared folder” row

OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share

3.4 Give it a name, select correct device, create a path leave the permission as default, Click on “Save” button to save the settings

OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS ->Shares -> Add -> Add Share ->Add shared folder
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS ->Shares -> Add -> Add Share ->Add shared folder

3.5 Make sure “Shared folder” row has right settings, Make sure “Time Machine support” is enabled, Click on “Save” button to save the settings

OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Shares -> Add -> Add Share

3.6 Click on Settings, enable SMB/CIFS service

OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Settings -> Enable
OMV -> Services -> SMB/CIFS -> Settings -> Enable

3.7 Now you will be able to find the Time Machine folder from your “macOS” -> Top Left corner “Apple Icon” -> “System Preferences” -> “Time Machine” -> “Select Backup Disk…” (Warning: It’s a good idea to continue with Section 4 to create and use a dedicate account for accessing shared folder rather than using OMV’s administrator account for security reasons though it’s not essential for making shared folder and Time Machine working)

macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences...
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences…
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences... -> Time Machine
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences… -> Time Machine
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences... -> Time Machine -》 Select Backup Disk...
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences… -> Time Machine -》 Select Backup Disk…

4 Create and configure Users if necessary

4.1 Go to “Access Rights Management” -> “User”

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User

4.2 Click on “Add” -> “Add”

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add

4.3 Enter Name, Password for the new user under “General” tab, make sure the user is in “users” group under “Group” tab

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add -> Add user - General
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add -> Add user – General
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add -> Add user - Group
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User -> Add -> Add -> Add user – Group

4.3 Now you should be able to see the new user in the list

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> User

5 Configure user permission for shared folder

5.1 Go to “Access Rights Management” -> “Shared Folders”

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> Shared Folders
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> Shared Folders

5.2 Click on the shared folder which we have configured in Section 3, then click on “Privileges” button, make sure give “Read/Write” access to the user we have created

OMV -> Access Rights Management -> Shared Folders
OMV -> Access Rights Management -> Shared Folders

6 Configure Time Machine on macOS

6.1 On macOS, go to Top Left corner “Apple Icon” -> “System Preferences” -> “Time Machine” -> “Select Backup Disk…”

macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences...
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences…
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences... -> Time Machine
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences… -> Time Machine
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences... -> Time Machine -》 Select Backup Disk...
macOS -> Apple Icon -> System Preferences… -> Time Machine -》 Select Backup Disk…

6.2 Select the one we have just created under “Available Disks”, click on “Use Disk” button, it will start to backup automatically. If you want secure the backup, make sure check the “Encrypt backups” before click on “Use Disk”

macOS Catalina -> Time Machine - Available Disks
macOS Catalina -> Time Machine – Available Disks

6.3 If you do not like automatic backup, just uncheck “Back Up Automatically” (Check “Show Time Machine in menu bar”, it will make your manual backup easier, the time machine icon will appear at the top of the screen (Menu bar) and access able for you to manually backup)

macOS Catalina -> Time Machine
macOS Catalina -> Time Machine

Extra: 7 Configure disk quota (Limit Time Machine size in shared folder)

7.1 In OMV, go to “Storage” -> “File Systems”, click on the Filesystem which we have just created, click on “Quota”, set an appropriate size limit for the user we have just created for Time Machine purpose and click on “Save” button

OMV - Configure quota for user
OMV – Configure quota for user

Note: This will not only limit Time Machine backup size, it actually limits the usable size for the user/account on this filesystem which means, including time machine and windows share as well. If you only want to limit time machine size, use that account only for time machine purpose, then create another account for windows share or other purpose of file sharing.

Extra: 8 Microsoft Windows access the shared folder

8.1 Open File Explorer/This PC from Windows and enter the IP address of OMV or host name of it e.g. o-test.mynetwork then Press Enter key

Microsoft Windows 10 - This PC/File Explorer
Microsoft Windows 10 – This PC/File Explorer

8.2 Enter your credential details then click on “OK” button

Microsoft Windows 10 - Login Window
Microsoft Windows 10 – Login Window

8.3 Now you will see the shared folder which we have created

Shared folder - tm
Shared folder – tm

8.4 Double click to open the shared folder, If you have already initialized Time Machine backup, you will be able to see a folder named “YourMacName.backupbundle”

Shared folder - tm - Time Machine backup
Shared folder – tm – Time Machine backup

(You won’t be able to see normal file structures e.g. your photo or document on your macOS’ desktop (Since it’s just for demo purpose I did not opt-in for encrypt backup option and that’s what you will see if the time machine backup is not encrypted ))

Shared folder - tm - Time Machine backup Folder
Shared folder – tm – Time Machine backup Folder
Shared folder - tm - Time Machine backup Folder - bands folder
Shared folder – tm – Time Machine backup Folder – bands folder
Shared folder - tm - Time Machine backup Folder - mapped folder
Shared folder – tm – Time Machine backup Folder – mapped folder
Shared folder - tm - Time Machine backup Folder Peoperties
Shared folder – tm – Time Machine backup Folder Peoperties

8.5 You can also create and modify folders and files in the shared folder from Windows PC

Creating a New folder from Windows 10 PC in shared folder
Creating a New folder from Windows 10 PC in shared folder
Creating a New test document from Windows 10 PC in shared folder
Creating a New test document from Windows 10 PC in shared folder

(Note: I strongly suggest to use this shared folder only for time machine, to protect the backup files from mistakes like accidental deletion/rename etc. You can follow Section 3 and Section 4 again to create an dedicate shared folder for macOS and Windows PC to share files rather than for Time Machine to backup files and the system, the only difference will be leave the “Time Machine support” option disabled at Step 3.5)

Other resources:

OpenMediaVault official website: https://www.openmediavault.org

OpenMediaVault official Download page: https://www.openmediavault.org/download.html

OpenMediaVault official SourceForge download repository: https://sourceforge.net/projects/openmediavault/files

How to: Restore Mac OS from Time Machine over Ethernet easily (Works for Time Machine on Open Media Vault (OMV) as well)

Before starting, make sure you have a working backup of the current system!!!

1 Refer to this guide “Mac OS how to Enter Recovery Mode” to enter recovery mode and clean/reset the Mac OS to factory default

2 When finished, the migration assistant should appear if it doesn’t, we can create a user, login then start the migration assistant manually.

3 Within the migration assistant, we can select “From a Mac, Time Machine backup, or startup disk” option, then click on continue.

Mac OS, Migration Assistant
Older Mac OS, Migration Assistant
Newer macOS, (Catalina in this screenshot), Transfer Information to This Mac
Newer macOS, (Catalina in this screenshot), Transfer Information to This Mac
Time Machine from Open Media Vault (OMV) discovered and listed automatically
Time Machine from Open Media Vault (OMV) discovered and listed automatically

4 It will allow us to enter the address of the time machine volume and it will ask us for the password, in case we have used an encrypted backup.

5 Now we can choose what to recover. (Warning: If the user we have created after the installation has the same name as the one we have used in the backup, there will be a conflict). Then we need to choose, whether we want to keep or delete the user or keep the data.

Mac OS how to Enter Recovery Mode

Restore/Recover Mac OS with – “Recovery Mode”

What can I do with recovery mode? What is recovery mode?

  • Use backup from “Time Machine” to Restore the Mac
  • Use “Disk Utility” from recovery mode to Scan, verify and repair the connected drives
  • Re-install stock version of Mac OS or Erase, Install.
  • Use Safari to browse the internet or diagnose connection

How to Enter Recovery Mode?

(This only works if your hard drive is not completely damaged, if it is, we need to use internet recovery mode which is the next section)

1 Make sure Mac is powered off.

2 Press the power button then immediately hold the Command ⌘ + R keys till the Apple logo appears. After awhile, the Mac OS utility window should appear, which means we have successfully entered recovery mode.

(If not, we might need to try several times to get the timing right)

How to Exit Recovery Mode?

To Exit the recovery mode, we simply just need to restart the Mac OS. If it keeps getting into recovery mode, just select the normal boot disk, we can try to restart the Mac OS again, now it should boot into normal system as expected.

How to Enter Recovery Mode over Internet connection?

If the hard drive is damaged (You might want to replace the hard drive first in this case) or volume is damaged, we need to Enter recovery mode via internet, here is how.

1 Power off the Mac

2 Press the power button then hold Command ⌘ + Option + R keys after you hear the start-up sound. Release the keys when you see the animated globe on the screen.

3 The loading speed depend on your internet connection speed, it’s a good idea to plug the power cord for your Mac.

4 When the loading is done, we should see the macOS utility window.

5 Now we have successfully entered recovery mode via internet.

How to Enter Recovery Mode with Pre-Made USB/Bootable Installer

Again, if the hard drive is damaged (You might want to replace the hard drive first in this case) or volume is damaged, we need to Enter recovery mode via internet, here is how.

1 If you don’t have an bootable USB yet, follow this guide (https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201372) to create a bootable USB first (You will need a working Mac for this task)

2 Power off the Mac

3 Press the power button to power on the Mac, when you hear the startup sound, press and hold the Option key. You will see the Startup Manager. Once the Startup Manager screen appears, release the Option key. The utility will look for any available drives that include bootable content including the bootable USB

4 Now select the bootable USB to boot from it, then you should be able to see the disk utility again.

How to Restore from directly connected Time Machine

1 Power off the Mac

2 Connect your Time Machine to the Mac, power on the Mac while holding the Option key

3 Select the Recovery Drive to boot Mac then click on “Use Disk to update the system storage”

Mac OS Software update Download Stuck x.xx GB – x.xx GB

The Mac OS software update might get stuck at downloading x.xx GB – x.xx GB

To resolve this issue try to download the update .dmg image directly from Apple then update the Mac OS manually.

Download links

USA – https://support.apple.com/downloads/macos

If you are not live in USA, you can select different country/language, the downloading speed might be faster for you: https://support.apple.com/choose-country-region/downloads

How To: Create Apple Time Machine in Open Media Vault (OMV)

(If you are using OMV 5, please follow this guide: How To: Create Apple Time Machine in Open Media Vault 5 (OMV 5) with Shared Folder (SMB Share/Windows Share/Shared Folder/CIFS))

1 Create File System (Refer to this guide How To: Create SMB/CIFs/Windows Share in Open Media Vault (OMV))

2 Install OMV Extras from here http://omv-extras.org (For OMV V4, click on here, following the http://omv-extras.org/joomla/index.php/guides (Link doesn’t work anymore) and install the plugin http://omv-extras.org/joomla/index.php/omv-plugins-4/4-stable (Link doesn’t work anymore)

3 Back to OMV, click on Plugins and install openmediavault-netatalk

4 Create Shared folder for Apple Time Machine (Refer to this guide How To: Create SMB/CIFs/Windows Share in Open Media Vault (OMV)) The steps are very similar but instead of going to SMB/CIFS, we use Apple Filing Tab this time

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Services Tab -> Apple Filing -> Shares
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Services Tab -> Apple Filing -> Shares

5 Make sure in the Edit Share window Enable Time Machine support, so that Mac OS can recognize the Share folder as supported Time Machine

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Services Tab -> Apple Filing -> Shares
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Services Tab -> Apple Filing -> Shares

6 Save settings

7 Click on Settings Tab, enable service, save settings and Apply

Creating a User

Since Mac OS require Time Machine require a password, we will create a user

1 Go to Access Rights Manager Tab and click on User

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> User
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> User

2 Click on Add button and Create a user and Save

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> User -> Add User
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> User -> Add User

Configure permission for Time Machine folder

1 Click on Shared Folders

 Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders

2 Click on previously created shared Time Machine folder then click on Privileges button

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders

3 Tick Read/Write permission for desired user for Time Machine

Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders -> Privileges
Screenshot of Open Media Vault (OMV) Access Rights Manager Tab -> Shared Folders -> Privileges

4 Now if we open our Mac, click on Top left corner (Apple icon) -> System preferences -> Time Machine, configure the settings to use the Time Machine we have just created

5 From now on, it will backup your everything from Mac OS, with hourly, weekly and monthly backup routine