Nikto – Web server scanner

Note: Nikto is included in latest Kali Linux (2020.1)

Nikto is a web server assessment tool. It is designed to find various default and insecure files, configurations and programs on any type of web server.

It can be used to discover potential issues and security vulnerabilities from web servers including:

  • Server and software misconfigurations
  • Default files and programs
  • Insecure files and programs
  • Outdated servers and programs [1]

Some basic usages/Quick start

Scan the IP/Host on TCP port 80

nikto -h
nikto -h

Scan the IP/Host on specified port (443 in this case)

nikto -h -p 443
nikto -h

Multiple Ports

nikto -h -p 40,443,3128

Using a proxy

# Using the proxy server specified from configuration file
nikto -h -p 80 -useproxy
# Specifying proxy server on the fly
nikto -h -useproxy


$ nikto -H
       -ask+               Whether to ask about submitting updates
                               yes   Ask about each (default)
                               no    Don't ask, don't send
                               auto  Don't ask, just send
       -Cgidirs+           Scan these CGI dirs: "none", "all", or values like "/cgi/ /cgi-a/"
       -config+            Use this config file
       -Display+           Turn on/off display outputs:
                               1     Show redirects
                               2     Show cookies received
                               3     Show all 200/OK responses
                               4     Show URLs which require authentication
                               D     Debug output
                               E     Display all HTTP errors
                               P     Print progress to STDOUT
                               S     Scrub output of IPs and hostnames
                               V     Verbose output
       -dbcheck           Check database and other key files for syntax errors
       -evasion+          Encoding technique:
                               1     Random URI encoding (non-UTF8)
                               2     Directory self-reference (/./)
                               3     Premature URL ending
                               4     Prepend long random string
                               5     Fake parameter
                               6     TAB as request spacer
                               7     Change the case of the URL
                               8     Use Windows directory separator (\)
                               A     Use a carriage return (0x0d) as a request spacer
                               B     Use binary value 0x0b as a request spacer
        -Format+           Save file (-o) format:
                               csv   Comma-separated-value
                               json  JSON Format
                               htm   HTML Format
                               nbe   Nessus NBE format
                               sql   Generic SQL (see docs for schema)
                               txt   Plain text
                               xml   XML Format
                               (if not specified the format will be taken from the file extension passed to -output)
       -Help              Extended help information
       -host+             Target host/URL
       -404code           Ignore these HTTP codes as negative responses (always). Format is "302,301".
       -404string         Ignore this string in response body content as negative response (always). Can be a regular expression.
       -id+               Host authentication to use, format is id:pass or id:pass:realm
       -key+              Client certificate key file
       -list-plugins      List all available plugins, perform no testing
       -maxtime+          Maximum testing time per host (e.g., 1h, 60m, 3600s)
       -mutate+           Guess additional file names:
                               1     Test all files with all root directories
                               2     Guess for password file names
                               3     Enumerate user names via Apache (/~user type requests)
                               4     Enumerate user names via cgiwrap (/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/~user type requests)
                               5     Attempt to brute force sub-domain names, assume that the host name is the parent domain
                               6     Attempt to guess directory names from the supplied dictionary file
       -mutate-options    Provide information for mutates
       -nointeractive     Disables interactive features
       -nolookup          Disables DNS lookups
       -nossl             Disables the use of SSL
       -no404             Disables nikto attempting to guess a 404 page
       -Option            Over-ride an option in nikto.conf, can be issued multiple times
       -output+           Write output to this file ('.' for auto-name)
       -Pause+            Pause between tests (seconds, integer or float)
       -Plugins+          List of plugins to run (default: ALL)
       -port+             Port to use (default 80)
       -RSAcert+          Client certificate file
       -root+             Prepend root value to all requests, format is /directory
       -Save              Save positive responses to this directory ('.' for auto-name)
       -ssl               Force ssl mode on port
       -Tuning+           Scan tuning:
                               1     Interesting File / Seen in logs
                               2     Misconfiguration / Default File
                               3     Information Disclosure
                               4     Injection (XSS/Script/HTML)
                               5     Remote File Retrieval - Inside Web Root
                               6     Denial of Service
                               7     Remote File Retrieval - Server Wide
                               8     Command Execution / Remote Shell
                               9     SQL Injection
                               0     File Upload
                               a     Authentication Bypass
                               b     Software Identification
                               c     Remote Source Inclusion
                               d     WebService
                               e     Administrative Console
                               x     Reverse Tuning Options (i.e., include all except specified)
       -timeout+          Timeout for requests (default 10 seconds)
       -Userdbs           Load only user databases, not the standard databases
                               all   Disable standard dbs and load only user dbs
                               tests Disable only db_tests and load udb_tests
       -useragent         Over-rides the default useragent
       -until             Run until the specified time or duration
       -update            Update databases and plugins from
       -url+              Target host/URL (alias of -host)
       -useproxy          Use the proxy defined in nikto.conf, or argument http://server:port
       -Version           Print plugin and database versions
       -vhost+            Virtual host (for Host header)
                + requires a value


[1] Nikto v2.1.5 – The Manual
[2] Github

Windows Operating System Penetration – Disable security measures via commands

We must have obtained admin privilege first, then execute following commands under administrator privilege.

  • Disable built-in firewall
netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off
Disable Windows firewall
Disable Windows firewall

  • Disable Windows Defender (Via sc stop or net stop command, or via registry)

  • Disable DEP
bcdedit.exe /set {current} nx AlwaysOff 

  • Disable Bitlocker
manage-bde -off C:

(Use following command to check Bitlocker status)

manage-bde -status C:

One-Lin3r – Penetration test with one line (Installation on Kali Linux)

One-Lin3r is simple modular and light-weight framework gives you all the one-liners that you will need while penetration testing (Windows, Linux, macOS or even BSD systems) or hacking generally with a lot of new features to make all of this fully automated (ex: you won’t even need to copy the one-liners).

One-liner functionWhat this function refers to
Reverse ShellVarious methods and commands to give you a reverse shell.
PrivEscMany commands to help in Enumeration and Privilege Escalation
Bind ShellVarious methods and commands to give you a bind shell.
DropperMany ways to download and execute various payload types with various methods.

Install on Kali Linux

1 Launch terminal

2 Install One-Lin3r

~# pip3 install one-lin3r
Install One-Lin3r
Install One-Lin3r

3 Force reinstall “prompt-toolkit”

~# pip3 install prompt-toolkit --force-reinstall
Kali Linux - pip3 install prompt-toolkit --force-reinstall
Kali Linux – pip3 install prompt-toolkit –force-reinstall

Or we will get following error by launch “one-lin3r -h” straight way without reinstalling “prompt-toolkit”

Traceback (most recent call last):
   File "/usr/local/bin/one-lin3r", line 6, in 
     from one_lin3r.main import main
   File "/usr/local/lib/python3.7/dist-packages/one_lin3r/", line 3, in 
     from .core import Cli
   File "/usr/local/lib/python3.7/dist-packages/one_lin3r/core/", line 6, in 
     from . import utils,db
   File "/usr/local/lib/python3.7/dist-packages/one_lin3r/core/", line 5, in 
     from prompt_toolkit.shortcuts import CompleteStyle, prompt
 ImportError: cannot import name 'CompleteStyle' from 'prompt_toolkit.shortcuts' (/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/prompt_toolkit/
Kali Linux, one-lin3r -h error
Kali Linux, one-lin3r -h error

4 Try launch one-lin3r -h

~# one-lin3r -h
Kali Linux - one-lin3r -h
Kali Linux – one-lin3r -h

5 Now we can close terminal window then launch from terminal or menu

one-lin3r from menu
one-lin3r from menu
one-lin3r from terminal
one-lin3r from terminal



~# one-lin3r
one-lin3r from terminal
one-lin3r from terminal

Other commands

One-Lin3r  -> list
One-Lin3r -> list
usage: one-lin3r [-h] [-r R] [-x X] [-q]
 optional arguments:
   -h, --help  show this help message and exit
   -r          Execute a resource file (history file).
   -x          Execute a specific command (use ; for multiples).
   -q          Quiet mode (no banner).

More on:


Next we can use nc to listen on the port from the reverse connection (reverse shell)

~# nc -lvp 1500
listening on [any] 1500 …
 nc -lvp 1500
nc -lvp 1500

Once we have connected to the victim then we need to think about privilege escalation, which One-Lin3r also contains some handy privesc commands for us to generate and use

one-lin3r -> search windows privesc
one-lin3r -> search windows privesc