Before crafting the curl command, we need to find the “name” attributes for the text boxes and the value for them, we can use built-in developer tools from different browsers to find that out, record the value of the “name”
Usually, when entering leading zeros in a number cell or general cell, the leading zeros will not retain and will be removed.
If we want to keep the leading zeros, here is how:
1 Right click on the cell which we want to keep leading zeros for, then click on “Format Cells…”
2 Follow the steps, Click on “Custom” then type zeros under the “Type”, if you want to Three digits then enter three zeros, then click on “OK” button to save the changes for this cell
3 Now we can see the leading zero retained for the cell if the value is less than 100.
Extended Reading- Alternatives
We can also format the cell to “Text” format rather than “Number” if we are not doing any calculation with that cell.
There are 2 ways to do this
Instead of type 001 in the cell, we can type ‘001, this way it’s stored as text, the leading zeros will be kept as well.
Using the “Format Cells” mentioned in the beginning, we can click on “Text” instead of “Custom”, the leading zeros will be retained.
Bottom line/Rule of thumb
If you don’t care what format the data should be stored as, then use whichever method you are happy with.
Generally, we should store data in correct, it might save us huge amount of time in the unknown future, that means, if there is only numbers going to be saved in the cells, then it’s better to format those cells as “Number”
Sometimes, we want to find largest files or folders from our computer, especially when we are running out of space on hard drive. Because spending time to find different small useless files and then delete them can be very time consuming and after all it’s possible that we have only deleted couple MB of files which won’t help much. Remove one or two huge files or folders may help a lot.
Here is a list of software which can be used just for this purpose and for free, even better, some are open source.
Easy to use
Free, Open Source
Can be installed
Portable version available (via portableapps)
Easy to use
Portable version available
Easy to use
Can be installed
Portable version available
Out of three, WinDirStat is the only open source one, Space Sniffer and WinTree are both freeware only.
WinDirStat does not provide official portable version, but portable version can be downloaded from portableapps. Both SpaceSniffer and WizTree provide official portable version.
All of them are very easy to use, the user interface of WinDirStat and WizTree are very similar, you click on the tile or block to reveal the file name, while SpaceSniffer displays the file and folder name directly on the tile/block.
Bottom line, choose whichever you like to use or give all of them a try and decide which one to go with, or even keep all of them in your bag, backup plan will not hurt 😉
Cisco Mobility Express Access Point keep disconnecting/excluding clients/users from time to time, the configuration seems fine on the controller but somehow, it keeps excluding clients.
Sometime we can discover following errors
[Date] [Time] [AP IP address] [AP Name]: *Dot1x_NW_MsgTask_0: [Date] [Time]: %DOT1X-4-MAX_EAP_RETRIES: 1x_auth_pae.c:6710 Max EAP identity request retries (3) exceeded for client [MAC Address]
The above error can be caused by many factors, some of them can be, low signal strength between AP and the client, RF interference etc. which cause the client to keep re-authenticating, eventually caused a behavior seemed with many tries of authentication, this triggers the protection from “Client Exclusion Policy” finally the client gets excluded for a period of time. The results will be the clients keeps getting disconnected. Local EAP parameters can be one of the reason as well.
Distribute the access points correctly at right distance, adjust antenna power for access points correctly, configure the RF frequency correctly to minimize interference, eventually improve the RF signal quality, and strength reaching out at clients. That should reduce the error.
There are some workaround may or may not work
(Cisco Access Point disconnecting clients from time to time can be caused by signal issue plus following settings, we can use following workaround to get around with it but it’s not recommended to disable them completely for enterprise environment since those are security features.)
EAP-Identity-Request Timeout (seconds) EAP-Identity-Request Max Retries EAP Key-Index for Dynamic WEP EAP Max-Login Ignore Identity Response EAP-Request Timeout (seconds) EAP-Request Max Retries EAPOL-Key Timeout (milliseconds) EAPOL-Key Max Retries EAP-Broadcast Key Interval RSN Capability Validation
Show current Local EAP settings
1 Login to Cisco Controller (Mobility Express) via console or SSH
2 Type following command
show advanced eap
Change Local EAP settings
config advanced eap [name] [value]
Increase value for “EAP-Identity-Request Max Retries” may fix or reduce following error
[Date] [Time] [AP IP address] [AP Name]: *Dot1x_NW_MsgTask_0: [Date] [Time]: %DOT1X-4-MAX_EAP_RETRIES: 1x_auth_pae.c:6710 Max EAP identity request retries (3) exceeded for client [Client MAC Address]
More information about EAP-* (non-Cisco official)
This timer affects how long we wait between EAP Identity Requests. By default this is one second (4.1 and lower) and 30 seconds (4.2 and greater. The reason for this change was, we found that some clients, hand helds, phones, scanners etc, had a hard time responding fast enough. Devices like laptops, usually do not require a manipulation of these values. Available value is from 1 to 120.
So, what happens with this attribute set to a value of 30? When the client first connects, it sends and EAPOL Start to the network, the WLC sends down an EAP packet, requesting the user or machines Identity. If the WLC does not receive the Identity Response, it sends another Identity Request 30 seconds after the first. This happens on initial connection, and when the client roams.
What happens when we increase this timer? If everything is good, there is no impact. However, if there is an issue in the network (including client issues, AP issues, RF issues), this can cause delays in network connectivity. For example, if you set the timer to the maximum value of 120 seconds, the WLC waits 2 minutes between Identity Requests. If the client is roaming, and the Response is not received by the WLC, we have created, at minimum, a two minute outage for this client.
Recommendations for this timer is to set it at 5. There is no current reason, to place this timer at it’s maximum value.
EAP-Identity-Request Max Retries
So, for max retries, what does this value do? In short, this is the number of times the WLC will send the Identity Request to the client, before removing it’s entry from the MSCB. Once the Max Retries is reached, the WLC sends a de-authentication frame to the client, forcing them to restart the EAP process. Available value is 1 to 20. So let’s look at this for a moment.
The Max Retries is going to work with the Identity Timeout. If you have your Identity Timeout set to 120, and your Max Retries to 20 how long does it take for the client to be removed? 120 * 20 = 2400. So it would take 40 minutes for the client to be removed, and to start the EAP process over again. If instead you set the Identity timeout to 5, with the Max Retires of 12, 5 * 12 = 60. So there is one minute until the client is removed, and it has to start EAP over.
Recommendations for the Max Retries is 12.
For the EAPOL-Key Timeout value, the default is 1 second or 1000 milliseconds. What this means is when it comes time to exchange the EAPOL keys between the AP and client, the AP will send the key and wait up to 1 second by default for the client to respond. After waiting the defined time value, the AP will re-transmit the key again. You can use the command “config advanced eap eapol-key-timeout <time>” to alter this setting. The available values in 6.0 are between 200 and 5000 milliseconds, while codes prior to 6.0 allow for values between 1 and 5 seconds. Keep in mind that if you have a client which isn’t responding to a key attempt, extending the timers out can give them a little more time to respond….however, this could also prolong the time it takes for the WLC/AP to deauthenticate the client in order for the whole 802.1x process to start fresh.
EAPOL-Key Max Retries
For the EAPOL-Key Max Retries value, the default is 2. What this means is that we will retry the original key attempt to the client 2 times. This setting can be altered using the command “config advanced eap eapol-key-retries <retries>”. The available values are between 0 and 4 retries. Using the default value for the eapol key timeout (1 sec) and the default value for the eapol key retry (2) the process would go as follows if a client doesn’t respond to the initial key attempt:
1 – AP sends key attempt to the client 2 – Wait 1 second for a reply 3 – If no reply, then send eapol key retry attempt #1 4 – Wait 1 second for a reply 5 – If no reply, then send eapol key retry attempt #2 6 – If there is still not a response from the client and the retry value is met, then deauthenticate the client.
Again, as with the EAPOL-Key Timeout, extending the EAPOL-Key retry value could in some circumstances be beneficial, however setting it to the max may again be harmful as the deauthenticate message would be prolonged.