How to: Upgrade Roundcube webmail easily with terminal/command

Roundcube is an open source web/online MUA (mail user agent)

Note!: Don’t forget to change the download link and folder name for wget and Install/Update (Step 2 and 4)

#1 Switch to /tmp directory
cd /tmp
#2 Download the package with wget
#3 Extract the package
tar xf roundcubemail-*.tar.gz
#4 Install/Update
./roundcubemail-1.4.3/bin/ /destinationFolder/roundcube

Extended Reading

MUA (mail user agent) Is used for users to read, compose, and send email. Examples of MUAs are Roundcube, SquirrelMail, pine, Microsoft Outlook etc.

MTA (mail transfer agent) Is used for the transport, delivery, and forwarding of email. Examples of MTAs like SMTP servers are POSTFIX, sendmail etc.

How to: Add DSCP, QoS, 802.1Q VLAN ID to Wireshark columns

Sometimes we want to see DSCP, QoS, 802.1Q VLAN ID information while diagnosing the network.

Here is how to add those to columns for easier inspecting

1 Launch Wireshark, select an NIC to work with

2 Right click on the column (Near top, under the toolbar)

Wireshark - column
Wireshark – column

3 Then click on “Column Preferences…”

Wireshark - Column Preferences...
Wireshark – Column Preferences…

4 Navigate to “Appearance -> Columns”

Wireshark - Preferences
Wireshark – Preferences

5 Click on the “+” button

6 Add the necessary rows from below table (Title can be different)

TitleTypeFieldsField Occurrence
802.1Q802.1Q VLAN id
Wireshark - Preferences - Add column
Wireshark – Preferences – Add column

7 When finished, click on “OK” button

8 Now we can see those added columns

Wireshark with added columns
Wireshark with added columns

How to: Find Largest file on Windows, Windows 7, Windows 10, Microsoft Windows, Windows Server (Disk Space Usage)

For finding largest file/folder or showing disk space usage on Linux, refer to this one: (Linux Command Line/ Terminal Disk Space Usage tool (Find largest folder/file))

Sometimes, we want to find largest files or folders from our computer, especially when we are running out of space on hard drive. Because spending time to find different small useless files and then delete them can be very time consuming and after all it’s possible that we have only deleted couple MB of files which won’t help much. Remove one or two huge files or folders may help a lot.

Here is a list of software which can be used just for this purpose and for free, even better, some are open source.


  • Easy to use
  • Free, Open Source
  • Can be installed
  • Portable version available (via portableapps)


  • Easy to use
  • Free
  • Portable version available


  • Easy to use
  • Free
  • Can be installed
  • Portable version available


Out of three, WinDirStat is the only open source one, Space Sniffer and WinTree are both freeware only.

WinDirStat does not provide official portable version, but portable version can be downloaded from portableapps. Both SpaceSniffer and WizTree provide official portable version.

All of them are very easy to use, the user interface of WinDirStat and WizTree are very similar, you click on the tile or block to reveal the file name, while SpaceSniffer displays the file and folder name directly on the tile/block.

Bottom line, choose whichever you like to use or give all of them a try and decide which one to go with, or even keep all of them in your bag, backup plan will not hurt 😉


  1. WinDirStat
  2. SpaceSniffer
  3. WinTree

Make the touchpad better on Windows

Note: Make sure you have a backup mouse ready before you start following steps

Windows 10 – Precision Touchpads settings

1 Use Win + I key to Open the Settings App

2 Navigate to “Devices -> Touchpad” or just use following link

Click here to bring up touchpad settings page directly (ms-settings:devices-touchpad)

Windows 10 Settings - Touchpad
Windows 10 Settings – Touchpad

Then you can start to customize different gestures

Windows - Settings - Other gestures
Windows – Settings – Other gestures
Windows - Advanced gesture configuration
Windows – Advanced gesture configuration

Precision Touchpad Driver (If Windows 10 Precision Touchpad settings is not showing up)

If you did not see those options in touchpad settings page, try to install the driver, see if the option appears after that.

First we need to find out if our touchpad is mad by Synaptics or ELAN.

1 Launch the Run window via Win + R key combination

Microsoft Windows - Run window
Microsoft Windows – Run window

2 Enter “devmgmt.msc”

3 Now the Device Manager is opened

4 Look for “Mice and other pointing devices”

Device Manager
Device Manager

5 Expand it, see if we have Synaptics or ELAN

6 If it’s Synaptics open this link:

ELAN open this link:

7 Download latest version of the driver from the website

8 When downloaded, open the file, extract it, find the “dpinst.exe”

9 Double click on it to install it

10 Restart the device once the installation is done

11 Follow step 1 to 4 again find the touchpad device, right click on it then click on “Update driver”, reboot maybe required after updating

12 Now you should be able to see the Windows 10 Precision Touchpad options.

Third-party software solution

If the above steps still not working, we can try to install a software which will dramatically improve our touchpad experience as well and it’s free!

The software is named “GestureSign”, even better, we can download it from Microsoft store for free

Microsoft Store- GestureSign
Microsoft Store- GestureSign

Description from Microsoft Store

GestureSign is a gesture recognition software for Windows tablet, Precision Touchpad and mouse. You can automate repetitive tasks by simply drawing a gesture with your fingers or mouse.

GestureSign supports the following commands:

  • Activate Window
  • Window Control
  • Touch Keyboard Control
  • Keyboard simulation
  • Key Down/Up
  • Mouse Simulation
  • Send Keystrokes
  • Open Default Browser
  • Screen Brightness
  • Volume Adjustment
  • Run Command Prompt Commands
  • Open File or Website
  • Launch Windows Store App
  • Send Message
  • Toggle Window Topmost
GestureSign - Action
GestureSign – Action
GestureSign - Gesture
GestureSign – Gesture
GestureSign - Options
GestureSign – Options
GestureSign - Ignored
GestureSign – Ignored

Click here to Download

Open source and Free Alternative to Postman -> Postwoman

Postwoma -
Postwoma –

Postwoman is an open source alternative to Postman. (Usually used for API request building)

Using Postwoman is basically same as using Postman, there should be no learning curve at all if you switch from Postman to Postwoman.

Description from official GitHub page

Features ✨

❤️ Lightweight: Crafted with minimalistic UI design – simple design is the best design.

⚡️ Fast: Send requests and get/copy responses in real-time – fast software is the best software.


  • GET – Retrieve information about the REST API resource
  • HEAD – Retrieve response headers identical to those of a GET request, but without the response body.
  • POST – Create a REST API resource
  • PUT – Update a REST API resource
  • DELETE – Delete a REST API resource or related component
  • CONNECT – Establishes a tunnel to the server identified by the target resource
  • OPTIONS – Describe the communication options for the target resource
  • TRACE – Performs a message loop-back test along the path to the target resource
  • PATCH – Apply partial modifications to a REST API resource
  • <custom> – Some APIs use custom request methods such as LIST. Type in your custom methods.

🌈 Make it yours: Customizable combinations for background, foreground and accent colors: because customization is freedom. Customize now ✨.


  • Choose theme: Kinda Dark (default), Clearly White, Just Black and System theme
  • Choose accent color: Green (default), Yellow, Pink, Red, Purple, Orange, Cyan and Blue
  • Toggle multi-colored headings

Customized themes are synced with local session storage

🔥 PWA: Install as a PWA on your device.


🚀 Request: Retrieve response from endpoint instantly.

  • Choose method
  • Enter URL and Path
  • Send


  • Copy/share public “Share URL”
  • Generate request code for JavaScript XHRFetch and cURL
  • Copy generated request code to clipboard
  • Import cURL
  • Label requests

🔌 WebSocket: Establish full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection.

  • Send and receive data
  • Basic and Bearer Token authentication

📡 Server Sent Events: Receive a stream of updates from a server over a HTTP connection without resorting to polling.

🔮 GraphQL: GraphQL is a query language for APIs and a runtime for fulfilling those queries with your existing data.

  • Set endpoint and get schemas
  • Multi-column docs
  • Set custom request headers
  • Query schema
  • Get query response

🔐 Authentication: Allows to identify the end user.


  • None
  • Basic
  • Bearer Token
  • OAuth 2.0
  • OIDC Access Token/PKCE (Proof Key for Code Exchange)

📢 Headers: Describes the format the body of your request is being sent as.

  • Add or remove Header list

📫 Parameters: Use request parameters to set varying parts in simulated requests.

📃 Request Body: Used to send and receive data via the REST API.


  • Set Content Type
  • Add or remove Parameter list
  • Toggle between key-value and RAW input Parameter list

👋 Responses: Contains the status line, headers and the message/response body.

  • Copy response to clipboard
  • Download response to as a file
  • View preview of HTML responses

⏰ History: Request entries are synced with local session storage to reuse with a single click.


  • Star
  • Label
  • Method
  • Status code
  • URL
  • Path
  • Timestamp
  • Duration
  • Pre-request script

History entries can be sorted by any fields

Histories can be deleted one-by-one or all together

📁 Collections: Keep your API requests organized with collections and folders. Reuse them with a single click.


  • Create infinite collections, folders and requests
  • Edit, delete, move, export, import and replace

Collections are synced with local session storage

🌐 Proxy: Enable Proxy Mode from Settings to access blocked APIs.


  • Hide your IP address
  • Fixes CORS (Cross Origin Resource Sharing) issues
  • Access APIs served in non-HTTPS (http://)
  • Use custom Proxy URL

Official Postwoman Proxy is hosted by ApolloTV – Privacy policy

📜 Pre-Request Scripts β: Snippets of code associated with a request that are executed before the request is sent.


  • Include timestamp in the request headers
  • Send a random alphanumeric string in the URL parameters

Requests with Pre-Request Scripts are indicated in History entries

📄 API Documentation: Create and share dynamic API documentation easily, quickly.


  1. Add your requests to Collections and Folders
  2. Export Collections and easily share your APIs with the rest of your team
  3. Import Collections and Generate Documentation on-the-go

⌨️ Keyboard Shortcuts: Optimized for efficiency.


  • Send Request Ctrl + G
  • Save to Collections Ctrl + S
  • Copy Request Link Ctrl + K
  • Reset Request Ctrl + L

🌎 i18n β: Experience the app in your own language.

  1. Scroll down to the footer
  2. Click “Choose Language” icon button
  3. Select your language from the menu

Keep in mind: Translations aren’t available for all source and target language combinations

To provide a localized experience for users around the world, you can add you own translations.

All i18n contributions are welcome to i18n branch only!

📦 Add-ons: Official add-ons for Postwoman.

  • Proxy β – A simple proxy server created for Postwoman
  • CLI β – A CLI solution for Postwoman
  • Browser Extensions – Browser extensions that simplifies access to Postwoman Firefox (GitHub)  |   Chrome (GitHub)Extensions fixes CORS issues.

Add-ons are developed and maintained under Official Postwoman Organization.

☁️ Auth + Sync: Sign in and sync in real-time.

Sign in with:

  • Google
  • GitHub


  • History
  • Collections

✅ Post-Request Tests β: Write tests associated with a request that are executed after the request response.


  • Check the status code as an integer
  • Filter response headers
  • Parse the response data

To find out more, please check out Postwoman Wiki.


Postwoman Demo
Official GitHub page

How to: Install Xrdp (Remote Desktop) on CentOS 8 – (How to: Use Windows to remote control CentOS 8)

Xrdp is an open-source implementation of the Microsoft Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) that allows you to graphically control a remote system

1 If you don’t have GUI/Desktop Environment installed on your CentOS 8, install it by using following command

sudo dnf groupinstall "Server with GUI"

2 Install EPEL repo stands for Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux Repository

sudo dnf -y install epel-release

3 Install xrdp

sudo dnf -y install xrdp

4 (To enable the service on boot and start it now)

sudo systemctl enable xrdp --now

5 (Just start the service without enable it on boot)

sudo systemctl start xrdp

6 Check status of xrdp

sudo systemctl status xrdp

7 Configure Xrdp


exec gnome-session

to the end of the configuration file


Or use following command to add “exec gnome-session” to the end of the “/etc/xrdp/xrdp.ini” configuration file

sudo bash -c 'echo "exec gnome-session" >> /etc/xrdp/xrdp.ini'

8 Restart xrdp to load the new configuration

sudo systemctl restart xrdp

9 Configure firewall to allow incoming connection to xrdp

(To allow incoming connection from anywhere to port 3389)

sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=3389/tcp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --reload

(To only allow incoming connection from LAN e.g. to 3389 port)

sudo firewall-cmd --new-zone=xrdp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=xrdp --add-port=3389/tcp --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --zone=xrdp --add-source= --permanent
sudo firewall-cmd --reload

Note: More secure way to do is to USE VPN then connect to xrdp server or only accept incoming connection to port 3389 from localhost then setup SSH tunnel to securely forward traffic from your local server on port 3389 to the server on the same port.

Now we use Windows Remote Desktop Connection to connect to the CentOS 8 via xrdp.

How to: Solve math equation/Algebra step by step? Mobile App and Windows Software

Are you an student? Trying to resolve an math equation? Don’t know how to resolve it even the final answer is in front of you? Read on! 😉

Microsoft created two free Math tools which can help you to get the answer, even better, it can show you step by step resolution, so that you understand and learn how to get the final answer rather than copy the final answer.

Microsoft Math Solver

With this mobile app, we can input math equation by three ways:

  • Scan from writing (Take photo from exercise book etc.)
  • Handwriting directly within the App
  • Enter the equation by using builtin math keyboard

It will then return final results with steps which you can expand and learn.

Microsoft Math Solver
Microsoft Math Solver
Microsoft Math Solver - Snap and Solve
Microsoft Math Solver – Snap and Solve
Microsoft Math Solver - Draw and Practice
Microsoft Math Solver – Draw and Practice
Microsoft Math Solver - Explore and Learn
Microsoft Math Solver – Explore and Learn
Microsoft Math Solver - Steps
Microsoft Math Solver – Steps
Microsoft Math Solver - Steps
Microsoft Math Solver – Steps
Microsoft Math Solver - Graph
Microsoft Math Solver – Graph
Microsoft Math Solver - Handwriting
Microsoft Math Solver – Handwriting
Microsoft Math Solver - Built-in math keyboard
Microsoft Math Solver – Built-in math keyboard
Microsoft Math Solver - Built-in math keyboard
Microsoft Math Solver – Built-in math keyboard
Microsoft Math Solver - Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver – Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver - Scan
Microsoft Math Solver – Scan
Microsoft Math Solver - Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver – Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver - Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver – Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver - Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver – Resolve
Microsoft Math Solver - Final Answer
Microsoft Math Solver – Final Answer

Microsoft Mathematics

This free software can be used on Microsoft Windows to resolve math equations.

Microsoft Mathematics
Microsoft Mathematics
Microsoft Mathematics - Main Window
Microsoft Mathematics – Main Window
Microsoft Mathematics - Resolve linear equation in two variable
Microsoft Mathematics – Resolve linear equation in two variable
Microsoft Mathematics - Resolve linear equation in two variable, Steps
Microsoft Mathematics – Resolve linear equation in two variable, Steps
Microsoft Mathematics - Resolve linear equation in two variable, Steps
Microsoft Mathematics – Resolve linear equation in two variable, Steps

Keywords: Solve math equation, solve linear equation, solve linear equation in two variable, solve math problems, software, application, app, computer program, free, Algebra

How to: compare Files/Code/Folders/Images/Pictures – List of three Open source Comparing Software/Tools


  • Windows
  • Open source/Free
  • Compare text files/source code files/folders/images
  • Easy to use


Notepad ++

Notepad++ with Compare plugin
Notepad++ with Compare plugin
  • Windows
  • Open source/Free
  • Compare text files/source code files
  • Easy to use


By default Notepad++ doesn’t have compare function.

We can make it possible by easily installing a compare plugin after Notepad++ is installed.

“Plugins -> Plugins Admin…-> Search for “Compare -> Check “Compare” -> Click “Install” button. -> Click on Yes when the pop-up window appears” After it’s done, Notepad++ will restart itself.

Notepad++ -> Plugins Admin
Notepad++ -> Plugins Admin
Notepad++ Install Compare plugin
Notepad++ Install Compare plugin
Click on Yes
Click on Yes
Wait until it's downloaded and installed
Wait until it’s downloaded and installed

Now we can see the Compare plugin is installed. “Plugins -> Compare”

Compare plugin installed
Compare plugin installed


  • Windows/Linux
  • Open source/Free
  • Compare text files/source code files
  • Easy to use



  • Windows/Linux
  • Open source/Free
  • Compare Image files
  • Easy to use


There are many free online text/source code compare and image compare tools as well which doesn’t require any installation, can be handy when it needs to be done quickly, not suitable for huge files or images or any confidential content.

How to: Copy text from pictures/images without OCR in Google Chrome

Project Naptha
Project Naptha

Project Naptha

An handy free plugin for Google Chrome.

You can highlight, copy, edit, and translate text from any image on the web using computer vision instead of OCR.

With OCR, sometimes, we can get a lot of text like “Hel10” or “He l | O” which is annoying. This plugin uses computer vision algorithms rather than OCR, so that it can recognize any text without the need to know what language first.

Note: It might interfere with right click on images (Workaround: Disable the plugin when not in use or simply right click on image part, not text part.)


Official website